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Evidence Based Medicine (EBM)

This guide is designed to walk you through the Evidence Based Medicine process: the elements of a well-formulated clinical question, types of studies, and the key critical appraisal questions that help determine the validity of evidence.

Specific EBM examples

The following pages in this guide walk you through the EBM process for different types of clinical questions. Each section includes:

  • Moving from a clinical scenario to a PICO, and then to a clearly articulated clinical question
  • Creating a logic grid as an efficient way to explore synonyms, variant spellings and word endings
  • Visuals of what an effective search strategy might look like in Medline, PubMed Clinical Queries, and the Scopus database
  • Some technical considerations you need to keep in mind when searching in particular databases
  • The different sets of questions you need to apply in determining validity. Critical appraisal questions will vary depending on the type of study under consideration (e.g. systematic review, test of diagnostic accuracy, or a RCT).